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Was Paul Misquoted? (3)

Does the Bible promote or oppose equal freedoms for all people? Can the church lead instead of lag in the movement for human rights for all? In my previous post, I outlined why many people may not like the Apostle Paul or may consider him sexist or a misogynist or arrogantly enforcing the idea of women in subordinate roles. Today, we will examine whether Paul is misquoted. Part 3 of a 4-part series on Paul.


Is Paul's real message about mutual dependence and equality? Is Paul discussing false doctrines enforcing distinctions between people, or is he promoting unity? Where we thought we were quoting Paul, are we quoting the incorrect doctrines that Paul is refuting? Is Paul promoting hierarchal practices, or is he flattening hierarchies by telling those in positions of power and privilege to lower themselves? Instead of quoting Paul, are we quoting the pagan hierarchal practices that Paul is correcting? Is Paul's apparent subordination of women a misquote or misunderstanding? Maybe Paul's intent is to oppose pagan hierarchy and promote equality and mutual dependence as a guide for living. Maybe Paul quotes pagan practices or false doctrines in order to correct them. I will address the five charges against him in my previous post and we will see Paul in a fresh, positive light:

  1. No Prejudicial views; no promotion of a hierarchy

  2. Not muddled: clear in his thinking, example, and actions

  3. Not arrogant or overconfident

  4. Preaching the same message as Jesus's closest disciples

  5. Practices and teachings match those of Jesus

Let's dig in.

Classic painting of Paul writing his letters
Wikimedia commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Probably_Valentin_de_Boulogne_-_Saint_Paul_Writing_His_Epistles_-_Google_Art_Project.jpg

1. Paul has No Prejudicial views and does not promote a hierarchy


a) In Ephesians, Paul begins by saying that all believers should submit to one another (Ephesians 5:21), as wives to husbands (Ephesians 5:22). Husbands can learn how Christians can submit to one another by looking at the familiar example of wives in the pagan household code. Paul quotes the familiar household structure developed by the Greek philosophers and overturns it by undermining the power of the husband. Paul moves husbands from their position of power in the pagan household code to a position where they love and serve their wives as they would their own bodies (Eph. 5:25-30, Col. 3:19, Titus 2:6). While Paul may have taught that man's head was Christ and woman's head was man, he corrects their understanding of that teaching, explaining that the head of Christ is God (1 Corinthians 11:3). Both sons and daughters are cornerstones (Psalms 144:12 KJV). Jesus is the foundational head of the corner, (1) the origin, source, and beginning (Matthew 21:42, Luke 20:17, Isaiah 28:16 KJV). The head supports and holds together the body (Colossians 2:19). The head and torso are united, reliant on one another, as men and women depend on one another (1 Corinthians 11:8). Paul tells us plainly that he refers to the mysterious union of husband and wife for the express purpose of explaining the profound mystery of the union between Chris and the church (Ephesians 5:32). In my study of Ephesians, I find Paul is not teaching about gender roles, (2) but about unity in Christ. Paul does not refer to the pagan household codes as a hierarchal model for those who are 'in Christ." In Paul's longest passage about married life, he insists that both spouses yield to the other and practice mutual consent (1 Corinthians 7:4-6). Paul does not support submission by one spouse and not the other.


b) Paul quotes the familiar pagan treatment of slaves and upends it by telling Masters to treat their slaves in the same way that slaves treat their masters. Paul reminds slavemasters that they are in fact fellow slaves, serving the same Master in heaven (Ephesians 6:9, Colossians 4:1, Philemon 1:15-17). Paul teaches believers how to live united in Christ without disobeying earthly authorities. Those who are 'in Christ' are equal heirs, adopted as children of Abraham with the full rights of sons. Jesus has destroyed the dividing wall between Jew and Gentile, male and female, slave and citizen. The passages contrast pagan hierarchies with unity in Christ, affirming that for those 'in Christ', there is no distinction by race, gender, or class (Ephesians 2:14-21, Colossians 3:11, Galatians 3:26-29).


c) Paul tells believers that they are free but pleads with them not to use freedom for selfish indulgence but to serve one another and love one another (Galatians 5:13-14); he tells them to walk by the Spirit (Galatians 5:16) and bear the fruit of the Spirit (Galatians 5:22-25). Paul explains they are new creatures and must live as children of the light (Ephesians 5:8), filled with the Spirit, men and women speaking to one another (Ephesians 5:18-19). Paul encourages us to set our hearts on things above (Colossians 3:1-2), taking off our old self and putting on our new self (Colossians 3:9-14). Paul reminds believers that they have been washed clean by Jesus (1 Corinthians 6:11). Paul quotes the Corinthians and their rationale for following their immoral practices - they have a right to do anything, the body is made for food and for sex (1 Corinthians 6:12-13) and Paul corrects them and reminds them that they are temples of the Holy Spirit and sex unified them as partners (1 Corinthians 6:19-20). Paul is not admonishing all believers, regardless of sexual orientation, to be mature and not exploit others for pleasure. This passage about sexual immorality is not likely related to homosexuality at all! Paul does not write these passages as threats or punishments, but to contrast the old, selfish ways with the new, Spirit-filled ways. These passages give us a vision of hope as those who are 'in Christ' love and serve one another.


d) Paul quotes questions from 'Chloe's people' (1 Corinthians 1:11) and answers them in his letter called 1 Corinthians. Paul quotes incorrect beliefs such as "I have the right to do anything" and corrects them by saying not everything is beneficial. He quotes them saying "I have the right to do anything" and corrects them by saying they should not be mastered by anything. He quotes them saying "Food for the stomach" (apparently a euphemism that sex is needed for the body), and Paul corrects them by saying the body is not meant for sexual immorality (1 Corinthians 6:12-13). Paul quotes them saying "It is good for a man not to have sexual relations with a woman" but corrects them by saying each husband and wife should have sexual relations with their spouse, by mutual consent (1 Corinthians 7:1-7). He quotes them discussing women who pray or prophesy aloud in the gathered assembly and does not tell them to stop; instead tells them the churches have no such requirement on how women dress while speaking publicly (1 Corinthians 11:5, 16). He quotes them saying "We all possess knowledge" and corrects them by saying that knowledge puffs up while love builds up (1 Corinthians 8:1). Paul goes on to say that love is more important than gifts of prophecying, teaching, miracles or speaking in tongues (1 Corinthians 12:27-13:1). In her work The Making of Biblical Womanhood, (3) Beth Allison Bar points to verses about women keeping silent in the churches as quotes from the Corinthians, with Paul's bold criticism being "What? came the word of God out from you?" (1 Corinthians 14:34-36 KJV). In fact, Paul tells women how to behave when they pray and prophesy aloud in the gathered assembly, and does not tell them to stop (1 Corinthians 11:5).

Cover of book by Lucy Peppiatt
Cover of book by Lucy Peppiatt investigating Paul's use of quote/refute in 1 Corinthians 11 and 14

Lucy Peppiatt, in her book Women and Worship at Corinth (4) , suggests there are additional, longer passages where Paul quotes the incorrect beliefs and corrects them. He quotes them incorrectly saying that men must uncover their heads and women must cover their heads (1 Corinthians 11:4-5) and corrects them, ridiculing them that if it is a disgrace for a woman to uncover her head, she may as well have it all shaved off, a sign of shame (v. 6). Paul quotes the incorrect beliefs that a man is the glory of God and the woman is the glory of man and a woman ought to cover her head (v. 7-10). Paul corrects them, saying a woman ought to have authority over her own head since men and women depend on one another, God created both, and none of the assemblies of God requires women to cover their heads (v. 11-16).


Bruce C. E. Fleming (5) author of The Book of Eden, agrees that 1 Corinthians quotes and refutes incorrect practices and that the passage aims to build unity among believers.


Dr. Cynthia Long Westfall, (6) the author of Paul and Gender, explains that the passage in 1 Corinthians 11 is not about women being submissive to men; it is Paul giving women agency and authority over their own head covering.


Theologian Marg Mowczko (7) explains that Paul corrects problems in the Ephesian church. This passage corrects both men and women and does not address women in ministry. In fact, Paul encourages both men and women to use the gifts God gives them to build up the body of believers (Romans 12:6-8, 1 Corinthians 12:23, Ephesians 4:11). In 1 Timothy, Paul is addressing three groups: (8)

  • angry, quarrelling men (1 Timothy 2:8)

  • wealthy women showing expensive hairstyles and clothing (1 Timothy 2:9-10)

  • an individual woman (v. 11-15)

This individual woman needed to stop teaching until she submits to learning the correct doctrine. Many Ephesians worshipped the goddess Artemis, and the woman may have been teaching false doctrines (9) to new believers. Some Artemis worshippers believed Eve was formed first, and assisted in the birth of Adam, making Artemis the protector of women in labour. Artemis saw women as wiser than men because Eve sought knowledge in the Garden of Eden, while Adam was deceived. Paul corrected these false doctrines.


Artemis honoured chastity, so the woman in question may have been bullying her husband into abstaining from sex because she believed giving birth would make her impure or could put her life or salvation at risk. Paul may be reassuring her that she will be saved [by Christ] even through the [ritually unclean and physically risky] birth process.


Dr. Cynthia Long Westfall points out (10) that Paul may be encouraging the women to turn to Christ, not Artemis, to keep them safe while giving birth. They should not lose their faith and turn away from God during a crisis. Paul may be reassuring her she will be physically saved from death in childbirth if she and her husband remain faithful, loving, and self-controlled. A husband's kindness, support, and restraint can help reduce maternal mortality.


Gail Wallace writes for the Junia Project (11) explaining why 1 Timothy cannot be used against women. To use it to restrict women is a poor translation and incorrectly applies personal advice about a specific situation to general advice for all time. Churches have been inconsistent on what restrictions should be placed on women. To restrict women in leadership means placing a higher value on these passages than on Paul's writing endorsing women leaders, as well as the Gospel's which empower women.


Dr. Lynn Cohick, (12) professor at Northern Seminary, confirms that 1 Timothy is addressing false doctrines and not permitting a domineering woman to teach until she learns. It is not a prohibition against all women for all time. Tom Barker, (13) a professor at Master's College and Seminary in Ontario, does a discourse analysis looking at women in ministry and realizes the main point of 1 Timothy 3 is not to limit women, but to let them learn. N. T. Wright says that we have seriously misread Paul's letters (14). He states that the key to 1 Timothy 2 is to let women learn (v.11) and be in full submission to Go, not to men (v. 12).


Philip B. Payne, (15) author of Man and Woman, One in Christ, and The Bible vs. Biblical Womanhood, points out that 1 Timothy 3 does not require a church overseer, bishop or leader to be a male. There are no masculine pronouns in the Greek texts of 1 Timothy 3:1-13, yet English translations use male pronouns. Whoever desires the office of overseer desires a good work (1 Timothy 3:1) is a more accurate translation than "If a man is eager to be a church leader, he desires an excellent work". Payne also states that the Greek phrase that an overseer must be "a man of one woman" (1 Timothy 3:12, Titus 1:6) does not women any more than it bans men who are single or remarried. The focus is for the married person to be monogamous, and it applies to both women and men.


Bible Geek Dain Smith (16) explains how the English Standard Version (ESV) adds male pronouns where there are none in the original text. In the description of Deacons, the New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) outlines how deacons must be blameless, and "women likewise must be serious" (1 Timothy 3:11-12). However, the ESV says Deacons must prove blameless and "their wives likewise must be dignified". (1 Timothy 3:11-12). The NRSV indicates that the instructions point to the blameless behaviour of both male and female deacons.


2. Not muddled: clear in his thinking, example, and action

As we have seen above, if a person says that women are restricted from certain roles and that only men have authority, based on the Bible, they may be:

  • quoting half of a verse or half of a sentence, which results in a misquote of the meaning and intent

  • quoting Paul who is literally quoting pagan practices or incorrect beliefs that he wants to correct

  • quoting a Bible text that is incorrectly translated to fit a patriarchal model

Once these passages are correctly understood, they no longer conflict with Paul's teaching in other passages that for those in Christ, there are no longer dividing walls or distinctions between Jews/Gentiles, slaves/citizens, or males/females. His letters are not addressed to the Roman rulers, telling them to abolish slavery and the household codes. Paul's letters are addressed to believers, telling us how to live in Christ, although we are under secular rulers.


To quote a verse about wives submitting to husbands without the corresponding verse about husbands likewise serving wives (1 Peter 3:7, Ephesians 5:28) is to ignore the call to submit to one another (Ephesians 5:21, 1 Peter 2:13-17). It results in misquoting the Bible. Those who think Paul endorses unequal power structures in marriage may say his views are shaped by being unmarried. However, as a man moving up the ranks of the Sanhedrin, he was likely married young and widowed by the time he converted to following Christ. Perhaps it was his call to travel and teach God's word that made him decide not to remarry when he became unmarried/widowed (1 Corinthians 7:8).


The idea that women must be silent in church or submit to men is in contradiction with Paul's actions and example. Paul respected women, developed deep friendships with both women and men and commended both as co-workers, ministers, apostles and deacons. Women were a huge part of Paul's ministry, (17) and there is no report of him limiting their ministry. Marg Mowczko lists the ten women Paul commends by name in Romans 16 (18) as co-workers for Christ. Phoebe is a deacon and a supporter of many including Paul (v. 1-2), Priscilla is a teacher who risked her life for Paul (v. 3-5), Mary, a hard worker (v.6), Junia, an outstanding apostle who has been imprisoned for her faith (v.7), Tryphaena and Tryphosa, women who ministered in the Lord (v.12), and others. Paul accepts the report from Chloe's people, respects Chloe's position in Corinth, her influence among believers there, and replies to her concerns (1 Corinthians 1:11). In Philippi, Lydia is Paul's first convert in Europe, everyone in her household converts, and she hosts Paul and other believers in her home (Acts 16:11-15). Paul affirms Euodia and Syntyche, saying they serve as Timothy serves, and encouraging them to be likeminded with Paul, just as he commends Timothy for being likeminded (Philippians 2:2, 2:20, 4:2, KJV).


3. Not arrogant or overconfident

Paul is upset that the Galatians have turned to a gospel other than the one Paul taught them. In order to encourage them to follow his teaching, Paul confirms his credentials, explaining he got his message directly from God, and not from humans (1 Galatians 1:12) and that God chose Paul (Ephesians 1:1). Paul's dramatic conversion on the road to Damascus, and his dramatic change from persecuting Christians to promoting Christ are evidence that the Holy Spirit called Paul (19). Paul reached out to the pillars of the church in Jerusalem to keep them informed (Galatians 1:11-19). When Paul talks about immoral behaviour deserving death, he does it for their benefit, assuring them that believers have a new, eternal life (Romans 2:7-10, 2 Corinthians 5:21, Ephesians 4:20-24, Galatians 5:13-16, Galatians 5:22-23). When he suggests that believers imitate him, he reminds them that he is imitating Christ, the ultimate model for our behaviour (1 Corinthians 11:1-2).


Paul is humble, saying he is the least of all the apostles (1 Corinthians 15:8-9) and the worst of sinners (1 Timothy 1:15). Paul quotes others as saying his appearance is unimpressive and his speaking is weak (2 Corinthians 10:10). Paul says he will confine boasting to boasting in the Lord (2 Corinthians 10:17). Paul fears that the Corinthians may be deceived by great speakers who boast they are superior to Paul, and perhaps take money from the people. Paul acknowledges he is an untrained speaker, but confirms he is not inferior and has knowledge (2 Corinthians 11:3-6). Being humble does not mean debasing your own value, but holding an accurate assessment of yourself.


The Corinthians appear to have been criticizing Paul's integrity and accusing him of greedily taking their money. Paul corrects their understanding, confirming that he has preached the gospel free of charge. He received support from Macedonian churches so that he could serve the people in Corinth and Paul promised never to be a burden to Corinth and expressed great love for them (2 Corinthians 11:7-11). Paul may also have received money from patrons, because he says that Phoebe has been a benefactor to many, including Paul (Romans 16:1-2). It may be that as Paul's benefactor, living close to Corinth in Cenchreae, Phoebe advised Paul from the start not to ask Corinthians for money. That may have been the vow he made, not to accept money for himself from Corinth, with Phoebe as his witness, and not to cut his hair until he fulfilled the vow and left Corinth, shaving his hair in Cenchreae (Acts 18:18). Paul overturns the traditional honour to the patron/benefactor (20) and gives honour to God as the ultimate benefactor and source of all things. Paul portrays human giving as a response to God's giving. Paul is teaching them how to practice gratitude.


Paul uses exaggerations and illustrations to clarify his message. He does not want his message to be unclear or muddled and he does not want his reader to be swayed by good speakers who teach false doctrine. He wants them to hold to what he taught, and he clarifies where they have twisted his teaching and correct it. He affirms his love for them, and his promise never to take money from them.


Paul is a person with healthy self-esteem, correcting misunderstandings about himself or his words, boasting in the Lord, practicing gratitude, and expressing love for his readers.


4. Preaching the same message as Jesus's closest disciples

Paul made peace with the other apostles. After receiving Christ's revelation, Paul said he took instructions from God (21) (Galatians 1:11-12). Three years later he went to Jerusalem to meet Peter and James, the brother of Jesus, a pillar of the Jerusalem church (Galatians 1:18-19). Barnabas testified and reassured them that Paul had converted and no longer persecuted Christians (Acts 9:26-27). Paul quotes an early Christian creed that lists the other apostles above himself and adds his name because he follows the same path (1 Corinthians 15:3-5). My study on 1 Peter (22) shows that Peter preached the same message as Paul regarding mutual submission and equality as a priesthood of believers.


Paul's message was the same as Jesus's closest disciples.

  • Peter, James, and John, the pillars of the church, recognized that God entrusted Paul with preaching to the Gentiles, and Peter to the Jews and extended the hand of fellowship and agreed that circumcision was not necessary for Gentile believers (Galatians 2:1-9)

  • Peter and Paul agreed that Jewish believers and Gentile believers could eat and worship together and Peter defended Paul's inclusion of Gentiles to the leaders in Jerusalem (Acts 15:6-11)

  • Peter and Paul agreed that women could be co-labourers for Christ. Peter and his wife are co-workers in 1 Corinthians 9:5 and Paul credits many women as co-workers.

  • Peter forgave Paul for the public criticism and Peter came to respect Paul as an apostle and Paul's teaching (2 Peter 3:1516)

  • Peter is considered the founder of the church in Rome, Paul avoids preaching on someone else's foundation (Romans 15:20), even though he has friends from Corinth who now live in Rome.

  • Paul heeds James's advice to follow Jewish purity laws before meeting with leaders in Jerusalem (Acts 21:20-26).

  • John says anyone who believes in Jesus can be saved (John 3:16) and Paul agrees (Romans 10:9-10).

  • Jesus seems to acknowledge that some men are born and created to be not sexually oriented towards women. He acknowledges a human world that is non-binary (Matthew 19). Likewise, Paul does not condemn activity that is homosexual but activity that is exploitive such as using a young boy as a sex slave.

  • Peter, James, John and Paul all tell believers to love one another. (1 John 4: 7-11, 1 Corinthians 13). Peter says love covers a multitude of mistakes (1 Peter 4:8). James says to honour the poor and to keep the royal law, to love your neighbour as yourself (James 2:5-9). John says to show your love through serving one another (John 13:4-17, Mark 10:45, Matthew 20:25-28). Paul lists joy as the first fruit of the spirit (Galatians 5:22-23). Paul encourages believers to walk in love (Ephesians 5:2), to be kind and loving (Colossians 3:12-14, and that the best gift is love (1 Corinthians 13:1-13). Paul does not differ from the disciples in his focus on love.

When Chloe's ambassadors informed Paul that there were quarrels among the Corinthians on who followed Paul, Apollos, Peter, or Christ (1 Corinthians 1:11-16), Paul says the church should not be divided over leaders because all are following Christ. All the Apostles are only servants and God assigns each a task: Paul said he planted the seed of faith in Corinth and Apollos watered it and God made it grow; we are co-workers in God's service (1 Corinthians 3:4-9). Paul respects other apostles, evangelists, and church leaders as co-workers.


5. Practices and teachings match those of Jesus

Jesus fulfils the prophecies of his mother Mary in Luke 1:46-56: Jesus is mindful of those who are humble, extends mercy to everyone, scatters the arrogant and proud, pulls down the powerful, lifts up the lowly, fills the hungry, and helps his people. Jesus taught his disciples to reach out to those who were called unclean by religious authorities. Jesus empowered foreigners and females to go out as apostles.


Paul also uplifted women and marginalized people, just as Jesus did. Paul encouraged and empowered and commended women as co-workers, leaders and apostles, just as Jesus did. Paul taught there were no more dividing walls between Jew/Gentile, slave/citizen, male/female, crediting Jesus with having broken the barrier.


Jesus accepted patronage from women (Luke 8:2-3) and so did Paul (Romans 16:1-2). Jesus encouraged Mary to learn spiritual things (Luke 10:38-42) and Paul also encouraged an uninformed woman to learn in submission to God (1 Timothy 2:11). Jesus commissioned Mary Magdalene as a woman apostle and Paul credits Junia as a woman apostle (Romans 16:7). Jesus treated men and women equally and told us to serve one another (John 13:12-15) and to love one another (John 13:35) and to show our action by our service. Paul also tells believers to submit to one another (Ephesians 5:21) and to love one another.


Paul calls himself an Apostle of Christ, brags only about Christ, and says that without Christ's resurrection, our faith is worthless (1 Corinthians 15:8-22, Ephesians 3:7-8). Paul honoured Christ as the origin and foundation of Christianity (Philippians 3:12, Romans 10:9-10, John 3:16). Paul taught that Jesus was God (Philippians 2:6-11, Romans 1:1-6). Jesus himself said he is one with the Father (John 10:30) and John says Jesus is God's word, who existed from the beginning (John 1:1-5).


Summary

There are opposing views of what Paul is saying in his writing, and a wide range in between. I cover the two positions for each controversial passage in my book: The Sword: A Fun Way to Engage in Healthy Debate on What the Bible Says about a Woman’s Role.


Maybe Paul's apparent teaching that women must be subordinate is misquoted or misunderstood. Maybe Paul's intent is to oppose pagan hierarchy and promote equality and mutual dependence as a guide for living. Maybe Paul quotes pagan practices or false doctrines in order to correct them. Maybe Paul's letters can be understood through Jesus's eyes, overturning established hierarchies and breaking the barriers dividing us.


Maybe Paul's apparent teaching that women must be silent was an exception for a specific time and place, not a general, continuous rule. Christians for Biblical Equality (CBE) International points out that Paul's actions are compatible with his words commending women in leadership. (23) CBE International suggests that Paul did not refer to men or women when he told believers to use God's gifts to build up the body of believers. The church suffers (24) when it discourages and disqualifies half of its members. Maybe we don't have to hold in tension the conflicting ideas that women and men have equal value but unequal roles. Maybe those restricting women could release the bonds and treat women as equals. Maybe women can be freed from gender-based restrictions and feel loved and empowered to use their gifts in whatever way God individually calls them.


Maybe Paul's teaching is consistent with Jesus's teaching and with God's overarching message of redemption and freedom as shown in both the Old and New Testaments. Fuller Theological Seminary (25) provides an excellent summary of the biblical support for women in ministry. Once we see these passages in context, the Bible does not contradict itself. Just as Genesis 1 authorized both men and women, Jesus and Paul both uplift women and minorities as equals. Maybe our Bible was written by men who could only see God's word dimly or were influenced by their male-dominated culture. Maybe Bible translators have seen Paul's writing through male perspectives.


If these suggestions that Paul endorsed equality are false, we need to look again at my last post, Was Paul a Misogynist? It outlines how traditional interpretations of Paul seem to endorse patriarchy and differ from the example of Jesus.


If the idea that Paul was teaching equality is true, and Paul has traditionally been misunderstood or misquoted, then I can love Paul and the letters he wrote. I can look to the Bible as a guide for living a life of love as Jesus called us to do. I can look for churches that agree that Paul endorsed gender equality, and Christians who believe that in Christ there are no more restrictions based on gender, race, or class distinctions.


However, if these ideas are true, then we must question the traditional teaching and practices of the church which enforce a male hierarchal structure that limits women. Did the church, either deliberately or inadvertently, interpret Paul's writing wrongly? I address this in post 4 of 4: Did the Church misconstrue Paul's writing?



Sources:

  1. https://www.elainekelly.ca/post/book-review-the-making-of-biblical-womanhood BethAllison Barr, The making of Biblical womanhood: how the subjugation of women became gospel truth, Brazos Press, 2021

  2. Dr. Lucy Peppiatt, Women and Worship at Corinth: Paul's Rhetorical Arguments in 1 Corinthians, James Clarke & Co, 2017

  3. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nJtBpbGfz7o Bruce C. E. Fleming The Book of Eden: God Didn't Curse Eve (or Adam) or Limit Women in any way, 2021

  4. https://www.elainekelly.ca/post/translation-tricks-and-4-tricky-passages-womeninministry-episode-5 Cynthia Long Westfall, Paul and Gender: Reclaiming the Apostle's vision for men and women in Christ, Baker Academic, 2016

  5. Philip B. Payne https://www.pbpayne.com/does-one-woman-man-in-1-timothy-32-require-that-all-overseers-be-male/ Philip B. Payne Man and woman, One in Christ: an exegetical and theological study of Paul's Letters, Zondervan, 2009




Elaine Ricker Kelly Author is empowering women with Christian fiction about women in the Bible and early church and Christian blogs about women in leadership, church history and doctrine. Her books include:

  • Forgotten Followers from Broken to Bold, Book 1

  • The Sword A Fun Way to Engage in Healthy Debate on What the Bible Says About a Woman's Role

  • Because She Was Called: from Broken to Bold, Book 2, A Novel of the Early Church, imagines Mary Magdalene's trip to testify before the emperor





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